The use of probiotics in aquaculture is a practical and practical direction to protect the environment and ensure production efficiency. Since then, contributing to the sustainable development of aquaculture.

The two main components of probiotics are beneficial bacteria and the nutrients that feed the bacteria. Beneficial bacteria are isolated from various sources. They include species such as Bacillus sp., Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter ... Nutrients are types such as sugar, calcium salt, magnesium salt ...

In form, probiotics have 02 forms, in water form and in powder form (or in tablet form). Normally, the powder form has a higher density of beneficial bacteria than the water form. In terms of species, there are two types of probiotics, the one used to treat the environment (the main bacterium is Bacillus sp.) And the type mixed into food (the main bacterium is Lactobacillus).

The benefits brought when using probiotics

(1) Stabilize water quality and substrate in shrimp and fish ponds.

(2) Improve the health and resistance of shrimp and fish.

(3) Minimize environmental pollution of ponds and surrounding areas caused by aquaculture.

(4) Improve feed efficiency.

The above benefits are due to the active activity of the bacteria through one or more mechanisms of action

(1) Strong competition for nutrients, energy and media against other harmful bacteria and toxic algae.

(2) Convert organic matter such as uneaten food, algae, dregs into CO2 and water; convert toxic gases such as NH3, NO2 into non-toxic substances such as NH4+, NO3-.

(3) Restrict harmful bacteria in the intestine and help metabolize food effectively.

(4) Secreting of some antibiotics, enzymes to inhibit or kill pathogens.

For probiotics to be effective, aquaculturists must follow some of the following rules

- Dilute probiotics with water in a pond, put in buckets, brass, then aerate for 4 - 5 hours until the yeast smells sour or pH drops, then apply.

- Periodically used during farming. Normally 7-10 days / time for environmental treatment type and use alternately 5 days, then stop for 5 days for mixed type in food. Use at the same time as fertilizing causing water color or after the water has colored.

- The dosage must be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

- When the pond environment shows signs of declining quality such as high levels of toxic gases (NH3, H2S, NO2 ...), water with sludge, glowing water, probiotics can be used earlier than usual. days with dosage 2 times higher than recommended.

- Do not use probiotics along with bactericidal chemicals such as BKC, potassium permanganate, chlorine, iodine, antibiotics. At the same time, do not use probiotics when these substances are present in the water environment or in the bodies of farmed shrimp and fish.

- Before applying probiotics, the pond environment needs to be improved by measures such as changing water, applying lime to raise pH to 7.5 - 8.5, applying lime + Dolomite + Mineral to improve alkalinity.

Probiotics will be effective 2 - 4 days after use, expressed through water color and environmental indicators.

Results achieved at the Center for Agricultural Technology Training and Transfer in the Mekong Delta: Whiteleg shrimp farming by microbiological process, after 2 farming sessions, the results are as follows:

Effects on the pond environment

- Stable pH (ranged from 8.0 to 8.3 during the farming process),

- Water color: the first month is from 25 - 35cm, after the 2nd month onwards, the water is cloudy.

- Pond bottom sludge, shrimp manure, uneaten food and other organic matter are reduced by 50% compared to those without periodic microbiological use.

- Reduce Nitrite, Nitrate, reduce the smell of toxic gases, effectively control the surface scum and pond bottom mud, creating a stable environment. Toxic gas content NH3 <0.01 mg / liter, NH4 + <0.2 mg / liter


- Shrimps grow fast, yield of shrimp up to 20 tons / ha.

- Shrimp size after 75 days of culture reaches: 65 shrimp / kg (15.4 grams / shrimp).

Summary of microbiological use process

- 2-3 days before stocking: use microorganisms with double dose as directed by the manufacturer.

- The first month: hit once every 5 days, with the manufacturer's dose.

- The second month: hit once every 4 days, with the manufacturer's dose.

- The third month onwards: periodically hit 3 times a day, with the dose of the manufacturer.

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