Effects of probiotic Bacillus species in aquaculture?

What is Bacillus bacteria?
     Science and technology developed with advanced applications in environmental treatment. Biotechnology to treat and improve the environment has always been a top priority, most of today's bio-products use strains of Bacillus sp. such as B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens ... So what is bacillus sp.? What is its mechanism for environmental treatment and useful applications?

Bacillus is a microorganism strain with the size of 0.5 µm to 20 µm, rod-shaped bacilli, gram positive, spore-forming, aerobic or anaerobic.
     The amount of leftovers and organic waste are the factors that cause serious pollution of the pond and destroy the ecological areas for aquaculture, causing disease-causing microorganisms to grow and spread quickly. . In most cases, the disease occurred as a result of environmental degradation and shrimp shock, including bacterial and viral diseases. In order to solve the problem of pond bottom pollution, Bacillus bacteria has become a commodity in some countries and has become a microbiological manufacturing industry like other industries for aquaculture.
In the sediment, the organic matter is constantly decomposed by heterotrophic bacteria and molds. These microorganisms need organic compounds to make food. Meanwhile, the organic compound was transformed by microorganisms including Bacillus into the original inorganic substances. Inorganic organic matter is a major function of bacteria and fungi in the transformation of matter in the water body. The decomposition of organic matter takes place at a very different rate, the order of decomposition is sugar and protein, followed by starch, fat and finally high molecular weight such as cellulose.

The role of Bacillus bacteria?

Rapidly disintegrating organic compounds, lipids, cellulose
     When a large amount of Bacillus is added to the effluent, pond water or substrate, they will begin to adapt to the environment, using organic and inorganic substances in the wastewater to grow to form microorganisms. Useful organisms from which the activated sludge forms. Bacillus has the ability to produce protease enayme, thus contributing to the rapid decomposition of organic substances, the lecitinase enzyme hydrolysates complex fats and the enzyme cenllulase converts cellulose into sugar, competes nutrition and dissolved oxygen with microorganisms. rot. Therefore bacillus is often used to decompose organic matter, compost and deodorize the decomposition process.

Participates in the process of ammonium, antitrotein and nitrate
     Under aerobic conditions, the process of ammonia protein is turned into compounds containing nitrogen and released NH3, during this period Bacillus uses nitrogen containing compounds such as amino acids, peptons, polypeptides. In anaerobic conditions Bacillus performs nitrification (NO2–), denitrification (NO3–) separates oxygen to oxidize organic substances. N2 in this process will escape from the water, thereby reducing the BOD content of wastewater.

Antibiotic secretion inhibits many groups of microorganisms that cause rot and harm.
     Many studies show that Bacillus subtilis in particular and bacillus strains have the ability to release antibiotics that destroy or inhibit the impact of other pathogenic and harmful microorganisms to compete for nutrition and space. live in the environment. The antibiotics produced by bacillus are recognized and have the purpose to fight harmful microorganisms with more than 20 different types such as subtilin, bacillibactin, iturin, subtilosin, bacilysin, mysobaccillin, ericin, mersacidin ... Most substances secreted in the intestine, on the host surface or secreted in an environment that inhibits pathogenic microorganisms. These antibiotics work alone or in combination. Strengthen the immune system for the environment, especially aquatic water environment.

Reduces the amount of H2S gas and toxins generated
     Under natural conditions, anaerobic environment causes oxidation of organic substances leading to slow and incomplete decomposition, which accumulates many organic acids, alcohols, H2S and its derivatives. Toxic as diamine, indon, tomain, scaton. However, with the ability to adapt and grow well in anaerobic environment, the strains of bacillus sp still release specific enzymes to help the process of decomposition of substances take place faster, thereby reducing the amount of H2S and other toxin accumulation. Therefore, they are widely used in treating the bottom of aquaculture ponds, anaerobic wastewater treatment tanks, septic tanks.

Iron competition
     All microorganisms require iron for growth, siderophores is the phenomenon of bacteria secreting low molecular weight iron ions in their environment and absorbing them, reducing the amount of iron present in the environment. The environment, competing with harmful microorganisms, causes them to lack iron for growth

Create biomass in the form of biofloc and probiotic
     As bacillus populations thrive, they secrete gelatin binders to bind together and to the substrate in the environment. It is a characteristic of microorganisms to form biomass, while also making it easier to use dissolved organic powders in the environment they use gelatin to bind dissolved organic molecules together to form. array of food. Organic bacillus biomass and gill are natural food sources for shrimp, fish and zooplankton. Diversify pond ecosystems, stabilize water color and water quality for rearing.

In summary, each Bacillus species (B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. cereus ...) may have a different key role in the mechanism of action of useful bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis that excel in organic decomposition. muscle, enhance immunity, stimulate digestion and secretion of antibiotics controlling pathogens; B. licheniformis has the ability to synthesize some natural antibiotics that inhibit growth or kill some other microorganisms, acting on both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, pathogenic fungi. Therefore, B. licheniformis is able to compete well with other harmful bacteria. B. cereus is strong in its ability to break down proteins, starches, cellulose ... contributing to cleaning the pond bottom, helping to digest food. With many studies showing that the number of useful bacteria is the only factor promoting the treatment efficiency and weight and survival of cultured shrimp.

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