The use of probiotics is one of the effective immunological control methods in aquaculture, which is considered a complementary, alternative strategy for vaccines and chemicals.
Probiotics in aquaculture act as a nutrient growth promoter, immune stimulant, enhance environmental adaptability, and can be considered as a preventive measure. infectious diseases again.
Some probiotics currently used in aquaculture, including Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Aeromonas, Alteromonas, Arthrobacter, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Phaeobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, Rhodosporidptium, Rose Vibrio.

Why probiotics have a good effect?
The beneficial microorganisms in the intestine will limit the adhesion and penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the digestive tract (GI). Substances produced by probiotics can also act as antagonists or contribute enzymes to the digestive system.
In addition, probiotics compete with iron against pathogenic bacteria. For pathogenic bacteria, the ability to acquire iron is critical to survival in the host, many genes involved in iron absorption are associated with bacterial virulence, when iron levels are low, micro bacteria can produce toxins that kill the host cell for iron.
Siderophores - substances with low molecular weight produced by probiotics or beneficial intestinal endocrine - reduce the existence of iron for pathogenic bacteria, because siderophores have a high affinity for iron ions , some bacteria have receptors with the siderophore of other bacteria and take their iron.
Another approach is to improve immunity, increase macrophage activity and antibody levels. Probiotics that can enhance host immunity and resistance to fish and shrimp disease have received a lot of attention over the past decade. In particular, lactic acid bacteria (Lactic acid bacteria) and Bacillus strains are used frequently, they stimulate the innate immune response and improve the ability to fight infections against pathogenic bacteria. Finally, improving the quality of water in ponds through the preparation of internal microorganisms, improving the physical and chemical parameters of water and controlling pathogens.

Choose suitable yeast strains
The selection of potential probiotics strains is based on a variety of criteria, such as mucus growth, acid and bile tolerance, survival in gastric juice, production of extracellular enzymes, production of anti-oxidants. germs, inhibit the growth of pathogens and biosecurity (hemolytic activity and susceptibility to antibiotics). Adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered an important selection criteria and a prerequisite for the long-term effects of probiotics.

In addition to probiotics, paraprobamel (cell wall composition) may also play a role as an alternative to antibiotic use in the prevention and treatment of infections caused by pathogens. Both probiotics and paraprobamel can bind directly to pathogenic bacteria, limiting the adhesion and penetration of pathogens into intestinal cells.

In order for probiotics to be effective, aquaculturists must adhere to the following principles:

  1. Dilute probiotics with water in a pond, put them into buckets and buckets, and aerate for 4-5 hours until the yeast smells sour or the pH drops, then fertilize.
  2. Periodically used during farming. Usually 7-10 days / time for environmental treatment type and use alternately 5 days, then stop for 5 days for mixed type in food. Use at the same time as fertilizing causing water color or after the water has colored.
  3. The dosage must be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
  4. When the pond environment shows signs of declining quality such as high levels of toxic gases (NH3, H2S, NO2 ...), water with sludge, glowing water, probiotics can be used earlier than usual. days with a dose 2 times higher than recommended.
  5. Do not use probiotics along with bactericidal chemicals such as BKC, potassium permanganate, chlorine, iodine, antibiotics. At the same time, do not use probiotics when these substances are present in the water environment or in the bodies of farmed shrimp and fish.
  6. Before applying probiotics, the pond environment needs to be improved by measures such as changing water, applying lime to raise the pH to 7.5 - 8.5, liming + Dolomite + Mineral to improve alkalinity.
Probiotics will be effective 2 to 4 days after use, reflected in water color and environmental indicators.

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